Campus police say the 17-year-old suspect was taken into custody Thursday night.
The Hawkinsville teenager is enrolled at a high school and at the central Georgia college, the school said in a statement.
He's charged with murder in the disappearance and death of 19-year-old freshman Jmaal Malik Keyes of Austell, just west of Atlanta, authorities said. He was living in a residence hall on the school's Cochran campus when he was last seen April 25.
School officials said campus police worked with the Georgia Bureau of Investigation and local police to search numerous times for Keyes and followed up leads, one of which lead to Thursday's arrest.
Police have not revealed details of how Keyes was slain. Keyes' body has not been found, Middle Georgia State Police Chief Shawn Douglas told WMAZ-TV in Macon.
Campus police have said they have surveillance video that shows Keyes, who did not have a car on the campus, getting into another student's car, WXIA-TV reported. Officers located that student, who told them he dropped Keyes off in a neighborhood near campus April 25, the Atlanta station reported.
That is the last time anyone has reported seeing Keyes. Police said his belongings were untouched in his dorm room.
"We are absolutely devastated by this news," Middle Georgia State Interim President John Black said in a statement. "There just are no words to describe how deeply hurt we are and how terrible we feel for Jmaal's family."
Black said he wants to convey his condolences to everyone in Keyes' family and those who knew him.
"We ask everyone in the Middle Georgia community to keep this family in their thoughts and prayers in the days and weeks to come," Black said. "We will cooperate in every way to help law enforcement authorities complete their investigation."
Keyes and the teenage suspect apparently knew each other as campus classmates, Douglas said.
The suspect was "dual-enrolled" at his high school and the college, school officials said. Investigators did not find any calls between the two on their cell phones, he said.
Copyright 2013 The Associated Press.